The“one country, two systems”-Hong Kong and China

By Jason Ho


The relationship between the Hong Kong citizens and the Hong Kong government/Chinese government became worse and worse since 2019-the start of the protest. The introduce of the extradition law for mainland China cause a lot of question pop out from the global society and they are questioned that was “one country, two system” repealed. The “one country, two system” bill was signed in 1997 when Hong Kong returned to Chinese sovereignty and set a expire in 2047. The Hong Kong basic law said that the bill will retain the economic system, legal system, legislative system, human rights and freedom for 50 years.

The handover ceremony in 1997

Geography features:

Hong Kong is on the China’s southern coast surrounded by the south China sea. It is a very important global financial center in Asia. Because Hong Kong is a free trade port which there are a lot of import and export every year in Hong Kong. And the Hong Kong Stock Exchange is the seventh largest in the world. But Hong Kong is lack of land and natural resources so most of the food was imported.

Background information:

The 2019-2020 Hong Kong protest:

Starting from 29 March 2019, the Secretary for Security introduced a new legislation bill (Fugitive Offenders and Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Legislation(Amendment) Bill 2019),the bill was introduced because of a murder case which happened in Taiwan. But the bill caused widespread criticism because the bill was not only for Taiwan but with Mainland China and Macau. Because mainland China have a very different system with Hong Kong which cause a lot of question in the Hong Kong society which the mainland China will use this law to transfer of dissidents.

The Five Demand of the Hong Kong protester:

  1. Full withdrawal of the extradition bill 
  1. Retraction of the characterization of the 12 June 2019 protests as “riots” 
  1. Release and exoneration of arrested protesters 
  1. Establishment of an independent commission of inquiry into police behaviour 
  1. Resignation of Carrie Lam and universal suffrage for the Legislative Council and the chief executive elections 

National Security Law(Implementation Rules for Article 43 of the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region):

  • The law was about secession, subversion, terrorism, and collusion with foreign or external forces which happen in the global world. 
  • It cause a lot of worried because it was a law for everyone in the global, if you violate this law even though you are not in Hong Kong, you may be caught by the National Security Department .
  • “It is clear that the law will have a severe impact on freedom of expression, if not personal security, on the people of Hong Kong,” Professor Johannes Chan-HKU.
  • The law cause people deleting facebook page and cause concerns that candidates will be disqualified because of the nation security law.
  • Hong Kong’s judicial independence will be eroded and its judicial system will look increasingly similar to mainland China’s.

Here is a short video about this law.

an advertisement of the law

The abuse of power of the Hong Kong Police:

The Hong Kong Police plays an important role in the protest where there cause three demand in the Five Demands. There are more than 2 death, 2600 injured, and 10000 arrest in this protest. There are a lot of incidents cause by the Hong Kong Police such as 12 June, Yuen Long Attack, Prince Edward station attack, CUHK conflict, and Siege of PolyU etc. In this incidents, it cause death and a lot of injured, and it was all example of the abuse of power of the Hong Kong police, such as the CUHK conflict, the police use more than 3000 tear gas, with some of them were expired.

the left over of used tear gas

The attack to journalists:

In late September, the journalist Veby Mega Indah had got shoot by the rubber bullet by the Hong Kong Police. She was blind because of the rubber bullet and her case has been delayed by her application for legal aid.

Indonesian journalist Veby Mega Indah

The affect to Hong Kong economy because of the protest:

GDP changeThe protest and with different external factors, such as US-China trade war, covid-19 etc. it cause the economy come into a recession. It shows a negative growth in the third season in 2019.
Retail sales slumpStarting from June, the retail sales have a steep decline. In Oct 2019, it shows the most decline as a -25%.
Tourism declineThe number of tourism drop around 4 millions after the protest starts. It was a strong impact to the economy in Hong Kong because most of the income in Hong Kong was tourism and affect the retail sales also.

The affect to the global because of the protest:

Hong Kong and China’s students clashFrom Australia to Canada, America, China’s student clash with the protesters in the global. The damage of Lennon Wall, the conflict between each other etc. which cause discrimination happened.
Conflict in University in Hong KongThe CUHK conflict and the siege of PolyU was happened in two different university in Hong Kong, which cause international students decide to leave the school campus because of their safety and both university had end the semester earlier.
A summary video

Five vocabulary to know:

  1. One country, two system: It was a bill that signed in 1997, which said that Hong Kong and China was one country but their both have a different system which they can’t affect each other. And it gives freedom to Hong Kong which China don’t have.
  2. Umbrella Movement: A political movement happen in 2014 due to China’s decision to rule out full universal suffrage in Hong Kong.
  3. Separation of powers in Hong Kong: It was post in the Hong Kong basic law in 1997, which said that the powers of executive, legislative, and judiciary were separate.
  4. Unfair election of Hong Kong Chief Executive: Chief Executive is elected from a restricted pool of candidates and form a 1200 people election group which means that Hong Kong people have no rights to choose their Chief Executive.
  5. Executive Council of Hong Kong: It was lead by the Chief Executive, and it was used to make delegated legislation.

Question: Does“one country, two system” still exist in Hong Kong and what will happen to Hong Kong/the global if the transition was cancelled. 

Task: To answer the question according to the information you know.